Lichens of North America Information

Home Page

Lichen Biology and the Environment

Lichens and Wildlife

Lichens and People

Useful Links


Irwin Brodo has been a research lichenologist at the Canadian Museum of Nature for the past 37 years, and was the Chief of the Botany Division for over eight. He officially retired in 2000, and is now Emeritus Researcher. A native of New York City, he received a B.S. from City College in New York, an M.S. in biology from Cornell University, and a Ph.D. in botany from Michigan State University. He has published 75 research papers, mainly in the fields of lichen taxonomy and ecology, including several monographs, numerous papers on British Columbia lichens, and an identification guidebook on the lichens of the Ottawa Region, now in its second edition. Although interested in lichens of all kinds, he mainly focuses on the less conspicuous crustose species.

Long interested in popularizing lichenology for the general public, Dr. Brodo frequently gives popular lectures and leads field trips, and he has contributed sections on lichens for The New Canadian Encyclopedia (Hurtig, Edmonton) and Legacy: The Natural History of Ontario (McClelland & Stewart, Toronto), as well as writing popular articles on naming plants and animals for the Museum's periodical, Biome. He is now engaged in a multi-year project with photographers Stephen and Sylvia Sharnoff to write a guidebook for the lichens of North America, illustrated with over 900 colour photographs, to be published by Yale University Press.

Dr. Brodo has served as President of the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, and was Bulletin editor for the International Association for Lichenology (IAL) for 12 years. He has also served as President of the Canadian Botanical Association, and received their Mary Elliot Service Award in 1993. With his strong interest in environmental conservation and natural history of all kinds, he has been active in many Canadian conservation organizations, especially the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club and the Ottawa-Hull Chapter of the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society, having served both as President.

For his contributions to the field of lichenology, Dr. Brodo recently received the International Association for Lichenology's "Acharius Medal." Now formally retired, he holds the position of Emeritus Researcher, and he remains enormously active.


75 research papers, 8 popular articles, 22 reviews and 6 editorials and obituaries (see list below)

Peer-reviewed publications

Brodo, I.M and R. Santesson. 1997. Lichens of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. 3. Marine species of Verrucaria (Verrucariaceae, Ascomycotina). J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 82: 27-37.

Brodo, I.M. & Ahti, T. 1996. Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. 2. The Cladoniaceae. Canadian Journal of Botany 74: 1147-1180.

Brodo, I.M. 1995. Koerberiella (Porpidiaceae, Ascomycotina), a new genus of lichens for North America. Bryologist 98: 609-611.

Brodo, I.M. 1995. Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. 1. Introduction and new records for B.C., Canada and North America. Mycotaxon 56: 135-173.

Lutzoni, F.M. & Brodo, I.M. 1995. A generic redelimitation of the
Ionaspis-Hymenelia complex (lichenized Ascomycotina). Systematic Botany 20: 224-258.

Common, R.S. & Brodo, I.M. 1995. Bryoria Sect. Subdivergentes recognized as the new genus Nodobryoria (lichenized Ascomycotina). Bryologist 98: 189-206.

Brodo, I.M. & Henssen, A. 1995. A new isidiate crustose lichen in northwestern North America. In E.É. Farkas, R. Lücking & V. Wirth (eds): Scripta Lichenologica - Lichenological papers dedicated to Antonin V zda. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 58: 27-41.

Brodo, I.M. 1995. Notes on the lichen genus Placopsis (Ascomycotina, Trapeliaceae) in North America. In J.G. Knoph, K. Schrüfer & H.J.M. Sipman, Studies in lichenology with emphasis on chemotaxonomy, geography and phytochemistry. Festschrift Ch. Leuckert. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 57: 59-70.

Lutzoni, F.M. and Brodo,I.M. 1994. (1139) Proposal to conserve the name Gyalecta suaveolens Fr. (lichenized Ascomycota) with a conserved type. Taxon 43: 657-659.

Brodo, I.M., B. Owe-Larsson and H.T. Lumbsch. 1994. The sorediate, saxicolous species of the Lecanora subfusca group in Europe. Nordic Journal of Botany 14: 451-461.

Brodo, I.M. and T. Tønsberg. 1994. A new species of Micarea with stalked pycnidia from the west coast of North America. Acta Bot. Fennica 150: 1-4.

Seifert, K.A. & Brodo, I.M. 1993. Revisiones Generum Obscurorum Hyphomycetum: Heydeniopsis Naumov. Sydowia 45: 100-102. (S)

Brodo, I.M. & Elix, J.A. 1993. Lecanora jamesii and the relationship between Lecanora s. str. and Straminella. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 53: 19-26. (S)

Brodo, I.M. and Wong, P.Y. 1993. Lichenes Candenses Exsiccati: Fascicle IV. Mycotaxon 46: 135-140.

Brodo, I.M. 1992. Bryoria trichodes, Ochrolechia oregonensis and Xylographa opegraphella new to Europe. Graphis scripta 4: 61-65.

Tønsberg, T. and Brodo, I.M. 1992. Enterographa zonata and Opegrapha gyrocarpa new to North America. Bryologist 95:225-226.

Brodo, I.M. 1991. Studies in the lichen genus Ochrolechia: 2. Corticolous species of North America. Canadian Journal of Botany 69:733-772.

Wong, P.Y. and Brodo, I.M. 1990. Significant records from the lichen flora of Southern Ontario, Canada. Bryologist 93:357-367.

Brodo, I.M. 1990. Rhizocarpon hensseniae, a cephalodiate lichen from the northwest coast of North America. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 38:29-35.

Brodo, I.M. 1989. Hypogymnia pulverata, new to North America. Lichenologist 21:184-186.

Brodo, I.M. 1988. Studies of the lichen genus Ochrolechia. l. A new classification for Pertusaria subplicans and P. rhodoleuca. Canadian Journal of Botany 66:1264-1269.

Gowan, S.P. and Brodo, I.M. 1988. The lichens of Fundy National Park, New Brunswick, Canada. Bryologist 91:255-325, + frontispiece.

Ahti, T., Brodo, I.M. and Noble, W.J. 1987. Contributions to the lichen flora of British Columbia, Canada. Mycotaxon 28:91-97.

Brodo, I.M., W.J. Noble, T. Ahti and S. Clayden. 1987. Lichens new to North America from the flora of British Columbia, Canada. Mycotaxon 28:99-ll0.

Brodo, I.M. and H. Hertel. 1987. The Lichen Genus Amygdalaria (Porpidiaceae) in North America. Herzogia 7:493-52l.

Brodo, I.M. 1986. Interpreting chemical variation in lichens for systematic purposes. Bryologist 89:132-138.
Brodo, I.M. 1986. A new lobate species of the lichen genus Lecanora (Ascomycotina, Lecanoraceae). Mycotaxon 26:309-317.

Brodo, I.M. 1986. A new species of the lichen genus Sulcaria (Ascomycotina, Alectoriaceae) from California. Mycotaxon 27:l13-l17.

Brodo, I.M. and W.L. Culberson. 1986. Haematomma pustulatum sp. nov. (Ascomycotina, Haematommataceae): A common, widespread, sterile lichen of eastern North America. Bryologist 89:203-205.

Vitikainen, O. and I.M. Brodo. 1985. (792) Proposal to reject Lichen subfuscus L. (Lichenized fungi). Taxon 34:533-534.

Brodo, I.M. and H. Vänskä. 1984. Notes on the maritime, lignicolous lichen Lecanora orae-frigidae. Lichenologist 16:45-5l.

Brodo, I.M. 1984. Lichenes Canadenses Exsiccati: Fascicle III. Bryologist 87:97-lll.

Brodo, I.M. and O. Vitikainen. 1984. The typification of Lecanora subfusca (L.) Ach., its varieties, and some of its related taxa published before 1850. Mycotaxon 2l:281-298.

Brodo, I.M. and S.P. Gowan. 1983. Un aperçu de la répartition des lichens de l'est de l'Amérique du Nord. Bulletin de la Société botanique du Québec 5:13-30.

Brodo, I.M. 1982. ("1981"). Lecanora luteovernalis, a new species of the L. symmicta complex from the Canadian Arctic. Bryologist 84:52l-526.

Brodo, I.M. and V. Alstrup. 1981. The lichen Bryoria subdivergens (Dahl) Brodo & D. Hawksw. in Greenland and North America. Bryologist 84:229-235.

Ahti, T. and I.M. Brodo. 1981. Cladonia labradorica, sp. nov., and C. kanewskii in Canada. Bryologist 84:238-24l.

Brodo, I.M. and D.L. Hawksworth. 1978. Exsiccatae of North American species of Alectoria and allied genera. Bryologist 81:315-318.

Brodo, I.M. and D.H.S. Richardson. 1978. Chimeroid associations in the genus Peltigera. Lichenologist l0:157-170.

Brodo, I.M. 1978. Changing concepts regarding chemical diversity in lichens. Lichenologist l0:l-ll.

Brodo, I.M. 1977. Lichenes Canadenses Exsiccati: Fascicle II. Bryologist 79:385-405.

Benton, F., Brodo, I.M. and D.H.S. Richardson. 1977. Lichens of Bamfield Maritime Station, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Canadian Field-Naturalist 91:305-309.

Brodo, I.M. 1976. A new combination for Cladonia stellaris. Bryologist 79:363-364.

Brodo, I.M. 1974. Substrate ecology. In V. Ahmadjian and M.E. Hale (Eds.) The Lichens, Academic Press, New York. Pp. 401-441.

Vitt, D.E., Ostafichuk, M. and I.M. Brodo. 1973. Foliicolous bryophytes and lichens of Thuja plicata in western British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Botany 51:571-580.

Brodo, I.M. 1973. The lichen genus Coccotrema in North America. Bryologist 76:260-270.

Wong, P.Y. and I.M. Brodo. 1973. Rock-inhabiting lichens of the Frontenac Axis, Ontario. Canadian Field-Naturalist 87:255-259.

Brodo, I.M. 1972. Lichens and cities. In B. Westley (ed.) International Symposium on the Identification and Measurement of Environmental Pollutants, National Research Council. Ottawa. Pp. 325-328.

Brodo, I.M. 1971. Lichenes Canadenses Exsiccati: A new series of Canadian lichens. Bryologist 74:15l-153.

Brodo, I.M. 1968. Herpothallon sanguineum (Sw.) Tobl. and some associated lichens from southern Delaware. Bryologist 71:120-12l.

Brodo, I.M. 1967. Lichens collected in Wisconsin on the 1965 Foray of the American Bryological Society. Bryologist 70:208-227.

Imshaug, H.A. and I.M. Brodo. 1966. Biosystematic studies on Lecanora pallida and some related lichens in the Americas. Nova Hedwigia 12:l-59.

Schauer, Th. and I.M. Brodo. 1966. Lecanora insignis und L.degelii. Nova Hedwigia 11: 527-533.

Brodo, I.M. 1966. Lichen growth and cities: a study of Long Island, New York. Bryologist 69: 427-449.

Brodo, I.M. 1965. Studies of growth rates of corticolous lichens on Long Island, New York. Bryologist 68:451-456.

Brodo, I.M. 1964. Field studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on lichens. Bryologist 67:76-87.

Brodo, I.M. 1961. A study of lichen ecology in Central Long Island, New York, New York. American Midland Naturalist 65:290-310.

Brodo, I.M. 1961. Transplant experiments with corticolous lichens using a new technique. Ecology 42:838-841.

Publications in non-peer reviewed journals

Brodo, I.M. 1994. Sticta canariensis: a new lichen for North America. Evansia 11: 76-77.

Brodo, I.M. 1994. "Herpothallon sanguineum" in Delaware: a reevaluation. Evansia 11: 87.

Books and Monographs (peer-reviewed)

Brodo, I.M., Sylvia Duran Sharnoff, and Stephen Sharnoff. 2001. Lichens of North America. Yale University Press (in press.)

Wong, P.Y. and I.M. Brodo. 1992. The lichens of southern Ontario, Canada. Syllogeus 69: 1-79.

Brodo, I.M. 1990. Lichens de la région d'Ottawa. Deuxième édition. Musée national des sciences naturelles, Ottawa. 115 pp.

Brodo, I.M. 1988. Lichens of the Ottawa Region, Second edition. Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club Special Publ. 3:1-115.

Noble, W.J., Ahti, T., Otto, G.F. and I.M. Brodo. 1987. A second checklist and bibliography of the lichens and allied fungi of British Columbia. Syllogeus 61:l-95.

Brodo, I.M. 1985. A guide to the literature for the identification of North American lichens. Syllogeus 56:l-39.

Brodo, I.M. 1984. The North American species of the Lecanora subfusca group. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79:63-186.

Brodo, I.M. 1981. Lichens of the Ottawa Region. Syllogeus 29:1-137. (English). Lichens de la région d'Ottawa. Syllogeus 29:1-174.

Brodo, I.M. and D.L. Hawksworth. 1977. Alectoria and allied genera in North America. Opera Botanica 42:1-164.

Brodo, I.M. 1968. The Lichens of Long Island, New York: A vegetational and floristic analysis. New York State Museum and Science Service Bulletin 4l0:1-330.

Books (not peer reviewed)

O'Clair, R.M., Lindstrom, S.C. and Brodo, I.M. 1996. Southeast Alaska's Rocky Shores: Seaweeds and Lichens. Plant Press, Auke Bay, AK

Published abstracts of oral presentations:

Brodo, I.M. 1993. The lichens of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia: The flora and phytogeography. (Abtract). Science Forum, p. 37. Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa.

Brodo, I.M. 1993. The crustose lichens of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia: observations on some new or interesting species [Abstract]. American Journal of Botany 80(6: suppl.): 18.

Brodo, I.M. 1992. Phytogeographic notes on the lichens of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. In I. Kärnefelt, Second International Lichenological Symposium, IAL 2, Abstracts. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden

Brodo, I.M. 1990. The corticolous species of the lichen genus Ochrolechia in North America [Abstract]. In: Fourth International Mycological Congress Abstracts, A. Reisinger and A. Bresinsky, eds., Regensburg.

Brodo, I.M. 1989. Chemosystematic studies of some North American species of Ochrolechia [Abstract]. American Journal of Botany 76 (6, Supplement): 4-5.

Brodo, I.M. 1992. Phytogeographic notes on the lichens of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. [Abstract]. In: International Association for Lichenology - 2, Lund, Sweden.

[Earlier published abstracts not listed]

Popular articles

Brodo, I.M. 1990. A rose by any other name... Biome 10(2):1.

Brodo, I.M. 1990. A rose by any other name. Part 2. How plants and animals get their names. Biome 10(3):1,4.

Brodo, I.M. 1989. Hardy pioneers. Lichens of Ontario. In Theberge, J.B. (ed.), Legacy. The Natural History of Ontario, pp. 77-81, McClelland & Stewart, Toronto. 397 pp.

Brodo, I.M. 1985. Lichens. In Marsh, J.H. (ed), The Canadian Encyclopedia, p. l006, Hurtig, Edmonton.

Brodo, I.M. 1972. Lichens of the Ottawa Area. III. The crustose species. Trail and Landscape 6:15-26.

Brodo, I.M. 1971. Lichens and air pollution. The Conservationist 26:22-26, (Reprinted in: The Bulletin of the Conservation Council of Ontario 18:4-6. 1971.)

Brodo, I.M. 1967. Lichens of the Ottawa area. I. Trail and Landscape 1:40-45. (litho.).

Brodo, I.M. 1967. Lichens of the Ottawa area. II. Trail & Landscape 1:114-115; 118-121 (litho.).

Reviews, editorials and obituaries

Brodo, I.M. 1997. Review: Thomas H. Nash III (ed.). Lichen Biology. The Quarterly Review of Biology 72: 207-208.

Brodo, I.M. 1996. Josef Poelt: A North American perspective. Bryologist 99: 349-351.

Brodo, I.M. 1994. Review: Rolf Santesson. The Lichens and Lichenicolous Fungi of Sweden and Norway. Bryologist 97:468-469.

Brodo, I.M. 1994. Review: Vernon Ahmadjian. The Lichen Symbiosis. Association of Southeastern Biologists Bulletin 41: 183-184.

Brodo, I.M. 1994. Review: Tor Tønsberg. The Sorediate and Isidiate, Corticolous, Crustose Lichens in Norway. Canadian Field-Naturalist 107:551.

Brodo, I.M. 1994. Review: Gerhard Rambold and Dagmar Triebel. The Inter-lecanoralean Associations. Bryologist 97: 111-112.

Brodo, I.M. 1990. Review: Theodore L. Esslinger. Systematics of Oropogon (Alectoriaceae) in the New World. Bryologist 93:255

Brodo, I.M. 1985. Review: Rolf Santesson. The Lichens of Sweden and Norway. Bryologist 88: 165-166.

Brodo, I.M. l980. (l98l). Review: Lichens of South Australia, by R.B. Filson and R.W. Rogers. Bryologist 83: 614.

Brodo, I.M. l980. Review: Lichens of the Alaskan Arctic Slope, by J.W. Thomson. Canad. Field-Naturalist 94: 350-35l.

Brodo, I.M. l978. Review: Lichen Ecology, by M.R.D. Seaward (ed.). Bryologist 8l: 638-639.

Brodo, I.M. l977. Review: Lichenology: Progress and Problems, by D.H. Brown, D.L. Hawksworth, and R.H. Bailey, eds. Quart. Rev. Biol. 52: 306-307.

Brodo, I.M. l975. Review: The Vanishing Lichens. Their History, Biology and Importance, by D.H.S. Richardson. Bryologist 78: 237-238.

Brodo, I.M. l975. Review: Lichenes. Eine Einfurung in die Flechtenkunde by A. Henssen and H.M. Jahns. Naturaliste Canadien l0l: l55-l56.

Brodo, I.M. l974. Review: Macrolichens of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, by E. Dahl and H. Krog. Canad. Field-Naturalist 88: 250.

Brodo, I.M. l973. Review: Air Pollution and Lichens, eds. B.W. Ferry, M.S. Baddeley, and D.L. Hawksworth. Science l8l: 275.

Brodo, I.M. l969. Review: The biology of lichens, by Mason E. Hale, Jr. Mycologia 6l: 439-440.

Brodo, I.M. l969. Review: The lichen genera Cetrelia and Platismatia (Parmeliaceae), by W.L. Culberson and C.F. Culberson. Bryologist 72: 85-86.

Brodo, I.M. l968. Review: The Lichen Genus Cladonia in North America by John W. Thomson. Canad. Field-Naturalist 82: l62-l63.

Brodo, I.M. l968. Review: The Lichen Symbiosis by V. Ahmadjian. American Scientist 56: 8lA.

Brodo, I.M. l967. Review: Symbiosis, S. Mark Henry (Ed.) Bryologist 70: l35-l36.

Brodo, I.M. 1965. Review: A monograph of Parmelia subgenus Amphigymnia. by Mason E. Hale, Jr., Bryologist 68:374.

Brodo, I.M. 1964. Review: Lichens, by Paul Ozenda. Bryologist 67:106-108.


Home Page

Lichen Biology and the Environment

Lichens and Wildlife

Lichens and People

Useful Links