Home Page

The Book

Lichens and Wildlife

Lichens and People

Useful Links

Return to Lichens and Ecosystems

Return to Lichen Biology and the Environment

  A red alder tree downwind of the smoke plume from the Sitka Pulp Mill (which has since been closed) in Sitka, Alaska. Red alder bark is normally covered by a mosaic of white lichens, but no lichens could grow in the polluted air behind the mill.
Photograph copyright Stephen/Sylvia Sharnoff